Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals and other materials from the ground.

Mining is composed of four (4) stages, these are:

  1. Exploration
  2. Development and Construction
  3. Utilization/Commercial Operation
  4. Decommissioning/final mining stage/Rehabilitation stage


Republic Act No. 7942, otherwise known as the Philippine Mining Act of 1995 and its Revised Implementing Rules and Regulations, DENR Administrative Order 96-40, as amended, is the main legal framework regulating the mining industry.

On the other hand, Republic Act No. 7076 and its Implementing Rules and Regulations, DENR Administrative Order 34, series of 1992, governs small scale mining.

Exploration is the process of searching for valuable minerals and quantifying them. It enables the mining company to determine whether there is a feasible deposit for mining development and production.

No, there are areas that are closed to mining. Per Section 19 of the Mining Act, R.A. 7942, Mineral Agreement or Financial or Technical Assistance Agreement applications shall not be allowed:

  • In military and other government reservations, except upon prior written clearance by the government agency concerned;
  • Near or under public or private buildings, cemeteries, archeological and historic sites, bridges, highways, waterways, railroads, reservoirs, dams or other infrastructure projects, public or private works including plantations or valuable crops, except upon written consent of the government agency or private entity concerned;
  • In areas expressly prohibited by law; and
  • Old growth or virgin forests, proclaimed watershed forest reserves, wilderness area, mangrove forests, mossy forests, national parks, provincial/municipal forests, parks, greenbelts, game refuge and bird sanctuaries as defined by law and in areas expressly prohibited under the National Integrated Protected Area System (NIPAS) under Republic Act No. 7586, Department Administrative Order No. 25, series of 1992 and other laws.